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hologram how it works


What is hologram






A hologram is a three-dimensional image, created with photographic projection. The term is taken from the Greek words holos (whole) and gramma (message). Unlike 3-D or virtual reality on a two-dimensional computer display, a hologram is a truly three-dimensional and free-standing image that does not simulate spatial depth or require a special viewing device. Theoretically, holograms could someday be transmitted electronically to a special display device in your home and business.




what is hologram




What does Hologram mean




A hologram is an image created by a photographic projection of a recording of a light field rather than an image formed by some sort of lens. It appears as a three-dimensional representation on a two-dimensional object, which can be seen without intermediate optics such as goggles or glasses. However these hologram images become unintelligible when viewed under diffused ambient light since they are not actual images. The photographic technique used to create these images is called holography.




Techopedia explains Hologram




Hologram refers to both the physical medium that diffracts the light to create the image and the resulting image itself. The first practical optical hologram that recorded a 3-D object was invented in 1962 by Yuri Denisyuk of the then Soviet Union and by Dennis Leith and Juris Upatnieks at the University of Michigan. Since its development in 1962, various hologram types have been developed.




One type is called a transmission hologram. These holograms are produced by splitting the laser light into an illumination beam and a reference beam. The illumination beam is projected directly on the object while the reference beam is projected directly onto the photographic medium, forming an interference pattern on the film; the result is a captured light field that was taken in a method similar to traditional photography processes.




hologram




What is rainbow hologram




Another type of hologram is the rainbow hologram, which is commonly used for authentication and security purposes. These are designed to be viewable under the illumination of white light rather than laser light like other types of holograms. The image is created using a vertical slit which removes vertical parallax in the resulting image, reduces spectral blur and preserves the three-dimensionality for most observers. These can usually be found on credit cards, product packaging and driver’s licenses.




Another common type is the Denisyuk hologram or reflection hologram. This type is seen in holographic displays and is capable of multicolor image reproduction.




rainbow hologram




How to make hologram




You make a hologram by reflecting a laser beam off the object you want to capture. In fact, you split the laser beam into two separate halves by shining it through a half-mirror (a piece of glass coated with a thin layer of silver so half the laser light is reflected and half passes through—sometimes called a semi-silvered mirror). One half of the beam bounces off a mirror, hits the object, and reflects onto the photographic plate inside which the hologram will be created. This is called the object beam. The other half of the beam bounces off another mirror and hits the same photographic plate. This is called the reference beam. A hologram forms where the two beams meet up in the plate.




 




How holograms work




 Laser light is much purer than the ordinary light in a flashlight (torch) beam. In a flashlight beam, all the light waves are random and jumbled up. Light in a flashlight beam runs along any old how, like schoolchildren racing down a corridor when the bell goes for home time. But in a laser, the light waves are coherent: they all travel precisely in step, like soldiers marching on parade.




how hologram works




When a laser beam is split up to make a hologram, the light waves in the two parts of the beam are traveling in identical ways. When they recombine in the photographic plate, the object beam has traveled via a slightly different path and its light rays have been disturbed by reflecting off the outer surface of the object. Since the beams were originally joined together and perfectly in step, recombining the beams shows how the light rays in the object beam have been changed compared to the reference beam. In other words, by joining the two beams back together and comparing them, you can see how the object changes light rays falling onto it—and that's simply another way of saying "what the object looks like." This information is burned permanently into the photographic plate by the laser beams. So a hologram is effectively a permanent record of what something looks like seen from any angle.




Now this is the clever part. Every point in a hologram catches light waves that travel from every point in the object. That means wherever you look at a hologram you see exactly how light would have arrived at that point if you'd been looking at the real object. So, as you move your head around, the holographic image appears to change just as the image of a real object changes. And that's why holograms appear to be three-dimensional. Also, and this is really neat, if you break a hologram into tiny pieces, you can still see the entire object in any of the pieces: smash a glass hologram of a cup into bits and you can still see the entire cup in any of the bits! (You can see a demonstration in this great video of cutting up a hologram and Hyperphysics has a more detailed explanation of exactly what we mean when we say "a piece of a hologram contains the whole object".)




hologram




What can we use holograms for?




Until the 1980s, holograms were a slightly wacky scientific idea. Then someone found a way of printing them onto metallic film and they became an incredibly important form of security. Proper glass holograms look much more impressive than the tiny metallic ones you see on banknotes and credit cards and you often see them used in jewelry or other decorative items: you can even have holographic pictures hanging on your wall with eyes that really do follow you around the room! In the 1980s, a British theater even projected a hologram of Laurence Olivier on stage to save the actor (who was, by then, quite elderly) the hassle of appearing in person each night. Lots of artists have experimented with making holographic pictures, including the Spanish surrealist Salvador Dali. Holograms also have important medical and scientific uses. In a technique called holographic interferometry, scientists can make a hologram of something like an engine part and store it as a "three-dimensional photograph" for later reference. If they make another hologram of the engine part at some later date, comparing the two holograms quickly shows up any changes in the engine that may indicate signs of wear or impending failure.




No-one's yet found a good way of making moving pictures with holograms, but it's probably only a matter of time. Once that happens, we can look forward to three-dimensional holographic TV and a whole new era of super-realistic entertainment!




Who invented holograms?




 




Dennis Gabor's original sketch of his 1950s holographic apparatus. Monochromatic light (yellow) enters at the bottom (1), passes through various prisms (blue) and lenses (gray) and is split into two beams. The low-intensity object beam on the left passes through the specimen on a slide (red, 10); the high intensity reference beam on the right continues in parallel without touching the specimen. The beams are recombined in a photographic plate (21/22) at the top after passing through more lenses (gray) and prisms (blue). Artwork from US Patent #2,770,166: Improvements in and relating to optical apparatus for producing multiple interference patterns by Dennis Gabor, courtesy of US Patent and Trademark Office.




Holograms were invented by a brilliant Hungarian-born physicist named Dennis Gabor (1900–1979) while he was working in the UK. He'd been researching optical physics in the 1940s, and carried out his breakthrough work in holography in the early 1950s. The remarkable thing about his invention is that it was many years ahead of its time: lasers, which made holography practical, did not appear until the 1960s. As Gabor's many patents show, he was a prolific inventor with wide-ranging interests across many different areas of physics. In the 1930s, he invented new kinds of electron multipliers and cathode-ray tubes; in the 1940s, he was experimenting with photography and projection, which set him on the road toward holography; later inventions included composite fabrics for use in television equipment, and various innovations in recording and transmitting sound. Towards the end of his life, Gabor's brilliant contribution was recognized by the award of the world's top science prize, the Nobel Prize in Physics 1971, "for his invention and development of the holographic method.




making hologram




Raw Materials for making hologram




Holograms made by individuals are usually exposed on very high resolution photographic film coated with a silver halide emulsion. Holograms made for mass production are exposed on a glass plate pretreated with iron oxide and then coated with photoresist. The photoresist material will chemically react to the specific wavelength of light that will be used to create the hologram. Because of their availability at a relatively low cost, helium-neon lasers are most commonly used by individuals who make their own holograms. Commercial hologram manufacturers use different laser types such as ruby, helium-cadmium, or krypton-argon ion.




After exposure, the film or photoresist plate is processed in chemical developers like those used in photography. Both nickel and silver are used to make the production masters that will be used to stamp multiple copies of the holograms onto polyester or polypropylene film. Aluminum is used to create the reflective coating on the back of embossed holograms.




Design of a hologram




A three-dimensional, physical object can be used to create a hologram. The holographic image is normally the same size as the original




 




object. This may require construction of a detailed scale model of the actual subject in a size suitable for the holographic image. Altematively, the artwork that is to be reproduced as a hologram can be computer generated, in which case software controls the laser exposure of the image file, one pixel at a time. (Pixels are the individual dots that comprise a graphic image on a computer screen or printout.)




manufacturing hologram




Process




Various manuals are available that explain to amateur holographers how to make holograms at home. The following steps describe the commercial mass production of a holographic image of an actual, three-dimensional object.




Mastering





  •  A laser is used to illuminate the physical object, with the reflected light falling on the photoresist plate. Simultaneously, a reference beam from the laser also falls directly on the photoresist plate. The interference patterns of these two light beams react with the photo-sensitive coating to record a holographic image of the object. Common exposure times are between one to 60 seconds. In photography, slight motion of the object or the film results in a blurred image. In holography, however, the exposed plate will be blank (contain no image at all) if during the exposure there is movement as small as one fourth the wavelength of the laser light (wavelengths of visible light range from 400 to 700 billionths of a meter).




A typical photoresist plate has a 6 in (15.24 cm) square working area; an extra half-inch (1.25 cm) of space on two edges allows the plate to be clamped into position. Because many holograms are smaller than this, several different images can be "ganged" (clustered) onto one plate, just as numerous individual photographs are exposed on one roll of film.





  • The plate on which the original hologram is recorded is called the master. After being exposed, the master is processed in a chemical bath using standard photographic developers. Before proceeding with production, the master is inspected to confirm that the image has been properly recorded. Because of the chemical reactions caused by the laser and the developer on the photoresist, the developed plate's surface resembles the surface of a phonograph record; there are about 15,000 grooves per inch (600 per cm), reaching a depth of about 0.3 microns (1 micron is a thousandth of a millimeter).




Electroforming





  • The master is mounted into a jig (frame) and sprayed with silver paint to achieve good electrical conductivity. The jig is lowered into a tank along with a supply of nickel. An electric current is introduced, and the master is electroplated with nickel. The jig is removed from the tank and washed wit




deionized water. The thin, nickel coating, which is called the metal master shim, is peeled off the master plate. It contains a negative image of the master hologram (the negative is actually a mirror image of the original hologram).




Using similar processes, several generations of shims are created. Those made from the metal master shim are known as "grandmothers," and they contain positive images of the original hologram. At this stage, numerous copies of the original image are "combined" (duplicated in rows) on one shim that can be used to print multiple copies with a single impression. Successive generations of shims are known as "mothers," "daughters," and "stamper shims." Because these generations alternate between negative and positive images of the original, the stamper shims are negative images that will be used during actual production runs to print the final product holograms.




Embossing





  • Stamper shims are mounted in embossing machines. A roll of polyester film (or a similar material) that has been smoothed with an acrylic coating is run through the machine. Under intense heat and pressure, the shim presses the holographic image onto the film, to a depth of 25 millionths of a millimeter. The embossed film is rewound onto a roll.




 




Metallizing





  • The roll of embossed film is loaded into a chamber from which the air is removed to create a vacuum. The chamber also contains aluminum wire, which is vaporized by heating it to 2,000°F (1,093°C). The sheet is exposed to the vaporized aluminum as it is rewound onto another roll, and in the process it becomes coated with aluminum. After being removed from the vacuum chamber, the film is treated to restore moisture lost under the hot vacuum condition. A top coating of lacquer is applied to the film to create a surface that can be imprinted with ink. The roll of film, which may be as wide as 92 in (2.3 m), is sliced into narrower rolls.




Converting




•             6 Depending on what type of film was used and what kind of product is being made, one or more finishing steps may be done. For instance, the film may be laminated to paper board to give it strength. The film is also cut into shapes desired for the final product and may be printed with messages. Heat-sensitive or pressure-sensitive adhesive is applied to the back of holograms that will be affixed to other objects or used as stickers.




Finishing





  • The holograms are either attached to other products or are counted and packaged for shipment.




The Future of hologram




Today, the most common use of holograms is in consumer products and advertising materials. There are some unusual applications too. For example, in some military aircraft, pilots can read their instruments while looking through the windshield by using a holographic display projected in front of their eyes. Automobile manufacturers are considering similar displays for their cars.




Holograms can be created without visible light. Ultraviolet, x-ray, and sound waves can all be used to create them. Microwave holography is being used in astronomy to record radio waves from deep space. Acoustical holography can look through solid objects to record images, much as ultrasound is used to generate images of a fetus within a woman's womb. Holograms made with short waves such as x rays can create images of particles as small as molecules and atoms.




Holographic television sets may project performers into viewers' homes within the next decade. Fiber optic communications systems will be able to transmit holographic images of people to distant homes of friends for realistic visits. Just as CD-ROM technology used optical methods to store large amounts of computer information on a relatively small disk, three-dimensional holographic data storage systems will further revolutionize storage capacities. It is estimated that this technology will store an amount of information equivalent to the contents of the Library of Congress in a space the size of a sugar cube.




 


Dental Implants


What Is Orthodontics?




 




Orthodontics is the branch of dentistry that corrects teeth and jaws that are positioned improperly. Crooked teeth and teeth that do not fit together correctly are harder to keep clean, are at risk of being lost early due to tooth decay and periodontal disease, and cause extra stress on the chewing muscles that can lead to headaches, TMJ syndrome and neck, shoulder and back pain. Teeth that are crooked or not in the right place can also detract from one's appearance.




benefits of orthodontic treatment




The benefits of orthodontic treatment include a healthier mouth, a more pleasing appearance, and teeth that are more likely to last a lifetime.




A specialist in this field is called an orthodontist. Orthodontists receive two or more years of education beyond their four years in dental school in an ADA-approved orthodontic training program.




orthodontic




 




How do I Know if I Need Orthodontics?




Only your dentist or orthodontist can determine whether you can benefit from orthodontics. Based on diagnostic tools that include a full medical and dental health history, a clinical exam, plaster models of your teeth, and special X-rays and photographs, an orthodontist or dentist can decide whether orthodontics are recommended, and develop a treatment plan that's right for you.




If you have any of the following, you may be a candidate for orthodontic treatment:





  •  Overbite, sometimes called "buck teeth" — where the upper front teeth lie too far forward (stick out) over the lower teet


  •  Underbite — a "bulldog" appearance where the lower teeth are too far forward or the upper teeth too far back


  •  Crossbite — when the upper teeth do not come down slightly in front of the lower teeth when biting together normally


  •  Open bite — space between the biting surfaces of the front and/or side teeth when the back teeth bite together


  •  Misplaced midline— when the center of your upper front teeth does not line up with the center of your lower front teeth


  •  Spacing — gaps, or spaces, between the teeth as a result of missing teeth or teeth that do not "fill up" the mouth


  •  Crowding — when there are too many teeth for the dental ridge to accommodate




orthodentist in tehran




How Does Orthodontic Treatment Work?




Many different types of appliances, both fixed and removable, are used to help move teeth, retrain muscles and affect the growth of the jaws. These appliances work by placing gentle pressure on the teeth and jaws. The severity of your problem will determine which orthodontic approach is likely to be the most effective.




Fixed appliances include:





  •   Braces — the most common fixed appliances, braces consist of bands, wires and/or brackets. Bands are fixed around the teeth or tooth and used as anchors for the appliance, while brackets are most often bonded to the front of the tooth. Arch wires are passed through the brackets and attached to the bands. Tightening the arch wire puts tension on the teeth, gradually moving them to their proper position. Braces are usually adjusted monthly to bring about the desired results, which may be achieved within a few months to a few years. Today's braces are smaller, lighter and show far less metal than in the past. They come in bright colors for kids as well as clear styles preferred by many adults.


  •   Special fixed appliances — used to control thumb sucking or tongue thrusting, these appliances are attached to the teeth by bands. Because they are very uncomfortable during meals, they should be used only as a last resort.


  •  Fixed space maintainers — if a baby tooth is lost prematurely, a space maintainer is used to keep the space open until the permanent tooth erupts. A band is attached to the tooth next to the empty space, and a wire is extended to the tooth on the other side of the space.




make_your_smail-beautffull




Removable appliances include:





  •   Aligners — an alternative to traditional braces for adults, serial aligners are being used by an increasing number of orthodontists to move teeth in the same way that fixed appliances work, only without metal wires and brackets. Aligners are virtually invisible and are removed for eating, brushing and flossing.


  • Removable space maintainers — these devices serve the same function as fixed space maintainers. They're made with an acrylic base that fits over the jaw, and have plastic or wire branches between specific teeth to keep the space between them open.


  • Jaw repositioning appliances — also called splints, these devices are worn on either the top or lower jaw, and help train the jaw to close in a more favorable position. They may be used for temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ).


  • Lip and cheek bumpers — these are designed to keep the lips or cheeks away from the teeth. Lip and cheek muscles can exert pressure on the teeth, and these bumpers help relieve that pressure.


  •  Palatal expander — a device used to widen the arch of the upper jaw. It is a plastic plate that fits over the roof of the mouth. Outward pressure applied to the plate by screws force the joints in the bones of the palate to open lengthwise, widening the palatal area.


  • Removable retainers — worn on the roof of the mouth, these devices prevent shifting of the teeth to their previous position. They can also be modified and used to prevent thumb sucking.


  •  Headgear — with this device, a strap is placed around the back of the head and attached to a metal wire in front, or face bow. Headgear slows the growth of the upper jaw, and holds the back teeth where they are while the front teeth are pulled back




smile_makeover




Smile Makeover




 




A smile makeover is the process of improving the appearance of the smile through one or more cosmetic dentistry procedures, such as:




 





  •  Dental veneers


  • Composite bonding


  • Tooth implants


  • Teeth whitening




Some of the components taken into consideration include your facial appearance, skin tone, hair color, teeth (color, width, length, shape and tooth display), gum tissue and lips. Smile makeovers are performed for many reasons and customized according to your unique considerations.




What is it that you like or dislike about your smile or your teeth? Some aspects of your smile that your cosmetic dentist will review with you and that could be improved include the following:





  • Tooth Color: Silver or amalgam dental fillings can be replaced with natural, tooth-colored composite restorations, while teeth whitening can improve the color of stained or dulled teeth. Tooth color and shading are important considerations during the evaluation of and preparation for various procedures, including porcelain veneers, crowns, bridges, composite bonding and dental implants.




When considering the color of your teeth, keep in mind that dark or discolored teeth may suggest an aged mouth. A well-shaped smile comprised of bright, white teeth lends to a youthful appearance. The shade your dentist selects for teeth whitening and veneers is carefully evaluated with special consideration given to the tone and color of your face and hair. Cosmetic dentists are skilled at finding the right balance between providing you with a brighter, whiter smile and maintaining a natural tooth color.





  • Alignment and Spacing: Teeth that are crooked, overlapping or have gaps between them can be straightened and aligned when necessary through orthodontics or Invisalign and improved with veneers.


  • Missing Teeth: One or more missing teeth can negatively affect the appearance of your smile – as well as affect your bite and increase your risk for tooth decay – making replacement an integral part of oral health and facial esthetics. Missing teeth can be replaced by dental implants, bridges or partial dentures.


  • Harmony and Balance: Uneven, chipped and cracked teeth can be cosmetically bonded for an improved appearance, and a gummy smile can be re-contoured to help improve the overall look of the smile.


  • Fuller Lips, Smile and Cheeks: An unshapely or aging face can be improved or rejuvenated with certain procedures in the smile makeover category, including orthodontics and/or oral maxillofacial surgery.




A cosmetic dentist will work closely with you to develop a treatment plan designed to achieve exactly what you want from your makeover. This treatment plan may consist of many cosmetic and functionally restorative procedures, potentially including teeth whitening, composite bonding, veneers, dental crowns, orthodontics (braces), oral maxillofacial surgery and gummy smile reduction.




Aesthetic Components of a Smile Makeover




In addition to the color, alignment and balance of your teeth in the aesthetic zone of your smile (the section of upper and lower teeth that show when you smile), there are several attributes of your teeth and smile that your cosmetic dentist will evaluate with you when planning your makeover. These include:





  • Tooth Length: Long teeth lend a youthful appearance. Aging produces wear and tear that often results in shorter teeth, and a gummy smile also can make teeth appear shorter. A treatment for shorter teeth may include reshaping and lengthening the two front central teeth with composite bonding or porcelain veneers. If you have a gummy smile, your cosmetic dentist may provide treatment to modify the gum line and lengthen the appearance of the teeth using laser dentistry procedures. You may also be referred to a periodontist for crown lengthening if necessary.




cosmetic_dentist




Teeth lengthening may also impact your overall facial appearance. For example, shapely, long, square teeth on a round-faced individual can provide a slimming effect.





  • Smile Line: The smile line is an imaginary line that follows the edges of your upper teeth from side to side, which ideally should be the same as the curve of your lower lip when you smile. This standard point of reference may be used to help determine how long your new teeth should be.


  • Tooth Proportions: Your cosmetic dentist will examine your teeth to determine if they are in correct proportion with each other. Most people recognize a pleasing smile as one in which the two central front teeth are dominant and have a width-to-length ratio of 4-to-5. This proportion guides the length and width of other teeth in the aesthetic zone so that the smile line appears balanced.


  • Tooth Texture and Characterization: An artistic dentist can characterize your crowns or veneers to create a more feminine or a more masculine appearance, in addition to matching the look and feel of natural teeth or those you’ve seen in photographs.




Maintaining Your Results




Cosmetic dentistry procedures require regular oral hygiene care and may require maintenance over time. For example, teeth whitening must be repeated on occasion in order to maintain brightness. Porcelain veneers may chip or break off and need replacement. Permanent composite bonding may stain and require enhancement or replacement. Dental crowns typically require replacement after 10 to 15 years. Gummy smile improvements may also require enhancement over time.




Your ceramist, lab technician and the materials chosen by your dentist also impact the longevity of your smile makeover. To achieve the best results, take special care in selecting your cosmetic dentist and inquiring about your material options.




Your oral health must be evaluated before a cosmetic dentist develops a plan for your smile makeover. Your dentist will conduct a comprehensive evaluation of your teeth, gums, underlying support structure and bite (occlusion) to determine candidacy for a smile makeover. If your evaluation reveals that you have an oral health problem – such as a misaligned bite (malocclusion) or gum disease – you will need to have that taken care of first.




porcelain veneers & teeth lamination 




Porcelain veneers and teeth lamination can restore your smile in as little as two visits . If your teeth are chipped, stained, misaligned, or have another cosmetic issue, teeth lamination may be the perfect option for a mini smile makeover.




Our experienced dentists and staff are experts in cosmetic dentistry procedures, including porcelain veneers and teeth lamination. Furthermore, Dr. Alevtina Edgar and Dr. Igor Ilyabayev are both members of the American Dental Association and New York State Dental Association. We always put your satisfaction first and have been recognized as a Patient’s Choice Winner on Opencare. Visit us to receive expert porcelain veneers and laminates for your teeth today.




Porcelain Veneers: Transforming Your Smile in Valley Stream And NYC




Do you have teeth that suffer from a wide array of aesthetic issues, such as stained teeth or even damaged/misshapen teeth? You might believe that improving the appearance of your smile will require multiple office visits and an array of treatments, but that’s not true.




At Central Avenue Dental in Manhattan and Valley Stream, our dentists can use porcelain veneers and teeth lamination to completely transform your smile in as little as two visits with a single cosmetic procedure. Find out how dental veneers can help you achieve the stunning results you deserve.




Porcelain veneers are routinely used to cover teeth that are discolored, worn, chipped, or misaligned. Porcelain veneers, often alternatively termed dental veneers or teeth lamination, are wafer-thin shells of porcelain that are bonded onto the front side of teeth in order to cosmetically improve their appearance. Typically, porcelain veneers are difficult to stain, making veneers a very popular solution for many people seeking that perfect smile. Strong and very durable, dental veneers should last from ten to fifteen years, and come in colors that will brighten dark teeth without the worry of them changing color. Teeth lamination is typically done in only two office visits and can actually strengthen your teeth.




laminate




What Can Dental Veneers / Teeth Lamination Address?




Laminates for teeth are used to address a number of both cosmetic and restorative issues, including:





  • Gaps between teeth


  •  Chipped or broken teeth


  • Misshapen or worn down teeth


  • Stained teeth




 The appearance of minor misalignment




If you have any questions about what aesthetic problems we can correct with a restoration, then please contact our office. We can examine your teeth to see what the best choice is for improving the function and beauty of your smile, whether it’s dental veneers/teeth lamination or another procedure.




How Do Porcelain Veneers Work?




A dental veneer is a thin shell of porcelain material that we place over the teeth in the front of the mouth. They adhere to the surface, instantly altering the appearance of the teeth. We can use teeth lamination to treat a number of issues or repair minor damage to the teeth. Caring for your restoration simply requires routine oral healthcare, including:





  •  Brushing your teeth twice a day


  •  Flossing once a day


  • Having the dentist examine your teeth twice a year via regular checkups and dental cleanings




Good oral hygiene not only protects your new restoration but can also improve your overall dental health as well.




What Does Porcelain Veneer Placement Involve?




The teeth lamination procedure will begin with preparation. To prepare the teeth we will need to remove a very thin layer of enamel. Doing so leaves room for the completed veneer. We then take impressions of your teeth.




At a dental lab, an expert ceramist uses the impression to design and fabricate the laminates. Once complete, you return for your second visit. The doctor must then check the fit and make any further adjustments. The veneer will be bonded to the tooth with a powerful adhesive material.




 Dental Implants




Dental implants are metal posts or frames that are surgically positioned into the jawbone beneath your gums. Once in place, they allow your dentist to mount replacement teeth onto them.




How do Dental Implants Work?




Because implants fuse to your jawbone, they provide stable support for artificial teeth. Dentures and bridges mounted to implants won't slip or shift in your mouth — an especially important benefit when eating and speaking. This secure fit helps the dentures and bridges — as well as individual crowns placed over implants — feel more natural than conventional bridges or dentures.




For some people, ordinary bridges and dentures are simply not comfortable or even possible, due to sore spots, poor ridges or gagging. In addition, ordinary bridges must be attached to teeth on either side of the space left by the missing tooth. An advantage of implants is that no adjacent teeth need to be prepared or ground down to hold your new replacement tooth/teeth in place.




To receive implants, you need to have healthy gums and adequate bone to support the implant. You must also commit to keeping these structures healthy. Meticulous oral hygiene and regular dental visits are critical to the long-term success of dental implants.




Implants are usually more expensive than other methods of tooth replacement, and most insurance carriers typically cover less than 10 percent of the fees.




The American Dental Association considers two types of implants to be safe. They are:





  •   Endosteal implants — these are surgically implanted directly into the jawbone. Once the surrounding gum tissue has healed, a second surgery is needed to connect a post to the original implant. Finally, an artificial tooth (or teeth) is attached to the post-individually, or grouped on a bridge or denture.


  •  Subperiosteal implants — these consist of a metal frame that is fitted onto the jawbone just below the gum tissue. As the gums heal, the frame becomes fixed to the jawbone. Posts, which are attached to the frame, protrude through the gums. As with endosteal implants, artificial teeth are then mounted to the posts.




dental_implant_process




The Dental Implants Process




To start restoring your smile with dental implants, we invite you to come in for a consultation with one of our doctors. At that appointment, we’ll go over your current oral health, your needs, and your goals for your smile. We will also take some X-rays to determine if your jawbone is strong enough for dental implants. If we decide that implants are the best treatment for you, we’ll also go over your restoration options to make sure you’re comfortable with your entire treatment plan from start to finish.




At your first treatment appointment, we’ll surgically place a dental implant into your jawbone in the place of a missing tooth or teeth. If your jawbone isn’t quite strong enough, we can perform oral surgery in our office and graft additional bone material onto the jawbone to give it extra strength. Once that has healed, we’ll bring you back in to place your implant.




The implant takes a few months to heal and fuse to the jawbone, but once it has, come back in for the restoration process. We’ll place a crown, bridge, or denture, depending on how many teeth you’re missing and your specific dental needs. Crowns are typically placed on a single-tooth implant. We use bridges if you’re missing a couple of teeth in a row. Implant-supported dentures are great for patients missing most or all teeth in an arch. We even offer All-on-4® treatment at our Summerville office, meaning we can stabilize your denture with four strategically placed dental implants.




After your mouth is healed, your new smile will look natural and beautiful. The implant will also allow you to get back to doing all the things you used to do with a full smile. We bet no one will even know which tooth is the implant unless you tell them!




dental_implant_benefits




Benefits of Dental Implants




Dental implants offer our patients a number of benefits, including:





  •  Look, feel, and function like natural teeth


  •  Prevent surrounding teeth from shifting into open space


  • Maintain facial shape


  • Stop bone loss in the jaw




In addition to being great for your oral health, dental implants are easy to care for, so you can continue to maintain a good dental hygiene routine. Just brush and floss your implant like normal – with proper care, implants are designed to last for decades!




 


Future of Hologram technology


Future of Hologram technology 




As technology continues to progress, we are given the opportunity to explore new and more exotic types of programming, software, hardware, and systems. One innovation that is growing at a rapid pace is hologram technology.

Holography is a photographic technique that records the light scattered from an object, and then presents it as three-dimensional.

Holograms of varying forms have appeared over the years, including transmission holograms, which allow light to be shined through them and the image to be viewed from the side, and rainbow holograms, like those used on credit cards and driver's licenses for increased security.

The development of hologram technology began in 1962, when Yuri Denisyuk, of the Soviet Union, and Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks, at the University of Michigan, developed innovative laser programs that recorded objects in 3D. They recorded on silver halide photographic emulsions at the time, but the clarity of the objects was far from perfect. New methods have improved holograms over time.




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Holograms in real life






Holograms are as close as your wallet. Most driver's licenses include holograms, as well as ID cards and credit cards. Holograms can even be found throughout our houses. Holograms come as part of CD, DVD, Blu-Ray, and software packaging, as well as nearly everything sold as "official merchandise".

But, these security holograms - which discourage forgery - aren't impressive. They simply change shape and color when tilted.

However, large-scale holograms, the kind illuminated with lasers or created in a dark room with carefully placed lighting, are phenomenal. They're basically two-dimensional surfaces that show very accurate three-dimensional images of real objects. You don't even have to wear special glasses like when you go to a 3D movie.

Holograms have surprising features. For example, each half contains whole views of the entire holographic image. The same is true if you cut out a small piece. Even a small fragment will still house the entire picture.

Understanding the principles behind holograms, helps you understand that the hologram, your brain, and light waves work together to make clear, 3D pictures.




How to make hologram lables 






To make a hologram, you record an object (or person) in a clean environment with a laser beam and apply the information to a recording medium that will clean up and clarify the image.

The laser beam is split in two and redirected with mirrors. One of the beams is directed at the object. A portion of the light reflects off the object and is recorded on the medium.

The second beam (reference beam), is directed toward the recording medium. This means the beams coordinate to make a precise image in the hologram location.

These two laser beams interfere and intersect with each other. The interference pattern is imprinted on the recording medium to recreate the 3D image.




Introduction of 3D  holograms






3D holograms are coming into our lives. A 3D hologram is an object that isn't actually "there," but looks like it is, either floating in mid-air or standing on a nearby surface. This "augmented reality" ( AR ) is a revolution well on its way.

Microsoft ( MSFT ) has its HoloLens headset, Apple ( AAPL ) uses ARKit, and Google ( GOOGL ) presents holograms in ARCore. The tech is saturating the tech market, and IT mega-corporations are racing to dominate the AR market.

3D hologram displays are the next step in more human-compatible digital content. The applications for the new technology are limitless.

A hologram projected in a room could show a 3D concept car like it was really there, and 3D presentations for meetings and conferences will wow audiences. And how about holographic telepresence? Yes, a hologram of you projected to a meeting room thousands of miles away!

Holograms have the potential to dramatically improve training, design, and visualization in many business settings and production facilities. Being able to "look at, zoom in on and manipulate 3D versions of in-progress designs radically enhances the design process."

Even marketing departments can thrill customers with holograms through experiential marketing campaigns and 3D hologram interactions.

One product currently in development is called DeepFrame. This holographic tech enables science fiction-like applications, like 3D telepresence. The cost is prohibitive at $50,000, but as the use for experiential marketing and telepresence grows, competition will grow and costs will decrease.

There are also developers like Looking Glass Factory that are working on a display product called HoloPlayer that's currently available for $750 (PC dependent) or a $3,000 version (built-in PC).

A HoloPlayer displays 3D holograms on a sheet of glass, so you don't need special eyewear to view them. As  Mike Elgan notes , the device creates "…3D hologram objects that can be manipulated using in-air gestures. When you look straight on, you see the front of the image. Tilt your head to the side, and you see the side of the image. These can be manipulated with natural hand gestures - reaching out, pretending to grab and turning will rotate the 3D objects. In-the-air swiping gestures also work as expected, taking you to the next image in a series."

Holographic imagery is also coming soon to windshields everywhere. A current example, demonstrated at CES by a company called WayRay, is Navion.

This dashboard-mounted projector produces an overlay of navigation data and turn-by-turn directions on the road itself. Navion also identifies hazards, such as pedestrians, and highlights them on the windshield. Navion can be controlled with in-the-air hand gestures or voice commands.

What most technophiles are waiting for is 3D hologram displays for smartphones that project the hologram on or above the surface of the display. Samsung and LG have been developing this technology for several years, but they feel that 3D hologram support for smartphones is still decades away.




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Holograms in the Future 






The general public is fascinated by holograms. However, holograms are major business. It is suggested that  by 2020 the market for genuine, display holograms will be worth $5.5 billion . Here are some of the incredible ways holograms are currently used.




Military Mapping by holograms






Geographic intelligence is critical to military strategy. Fully dimensional holographic images are being used for improved reconnaissance. These 3D holographic maps of "battle-spaces" allow soldiers to view three-dimensional terrain, look "around" corners, and train for missions.

The company takes computerized image data and turns it into a holographic sheet. "Not only can users 'look into' the high-quality 3D image of the terrain stored in the hologram sheet, but the technology is simple to use and can be rolled up for easy storage and transportation." The maps are also useful in disaster evacuation and military rescue scenarios.




Information Storage with hologram technology






Society generates incalculable amounts of data every day. Digital storage capacity increases every year. Our personal computers store hundreds of gigabytes of information, including family photos, videos and documents. Now think about a storage disc being corrupted. The losses are unimaginable.

Though holograms create fascinating imagery, they don't just have to record and present a visual object. Holograms are capable of recording pure data - mountains of it. Holograms have the potential to store absurd amounts of information. The current prototype systems store 4.4m individual pages of information on a DVD like disc. They also offer a unique form of long-term security.

"If you make an optical hologram of a page of information and then smash it, for example, you can reconstruct it from any of the pieces. This makes holographic data storage extremely reliable. Unlike CDs and DVDs, which store their data on the disc's surface, holograms store data in three dimensions and those pages can overlap in the storage space."




Holography usage in Medical science






Holography is on its way to revolutionizing medicine. It can be a tool for visualizing patient data in training students and surgeons.

Current systems like Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and ultrasound scans generate complex data using advanced imaging technology. This technology has the capability to produce full color, computer-generated 3D holograms.

Using these 3D images for training and display, holograms require no viewing devices or glasses. Students and doctors can simply "look", unhindered, at the three-dimensional images. These images can include the incredibly complex organs and systems of the body, like the brain, heart, liver, lungs, nerves, and muscles.




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Fraud and Security by using hologram






Because Holograms are complex and hard to make, this makes them an incredible advantage in commercial security.

If you have a credit card, you have a hologram. "That small silver rectangle of a dove on your credit card is a white-light, mirror-backed, transmission hologram. It displays a three-dimensional image which is visible as you move from side to side, and changes color as you tilt your card up and down." These holograms are incredibly difficult to forge.

Bank notes are also starting to incorporate secure holograms. In the UK, the newest £5 bank note has an image of Big Ben and uses holography to produce a set of changing colors as you tilt the note. There is also a 3D image of the coronation crown "floating" above the note when tilted.




Art and holography






Artists began experimenting with holography the moment it became a practical process. There are artists around the globe using the three-dimensional of holograms to bend and cut space, combine collections of still images or video to produce animated 3D works, and to sculpt pure light.

Most recently, an exhibition in central London presented a show of creative holography. International groups of selected artists contributed work to an exhibition on Governors Island, New York, and artists from Canada, Italy, the US and UK were chosen for an exhibition using holography and the media arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico this summer.






Conclusion 






Holograms used to be the stuff of science fiction that was "coming to a theater near you". However, the practical uses of holographic technology have eclipsed the film industry and become a commonplace feature in our everyday lives.

We are only seeing the beginning of the usefulness of holograms and as the innovators and developers continue to improve the technology, holograms will become an even larger part of society.




The future of 3D holograms 




Smartphone-based augmented reality (AR) and the AR headset explosion will bring 3D holograms into our lives everywhere. Meanwhile, though, the real AR hologram revolution is being ignored.

A hologram is a 3D virtual object that isn’t actually “there,” but looks as if it were, either floating in the air or standing on a nearby desk or table.

The “holo” in Microsoft’s HoloLens headset is a reference to holograms. And when we think of these future AR holograms, we think of headsets, goggles such as HoloLens or smartphones running applications created with Apple’s ARKit or Google’s ARCore.

The technology is increasingly becoming ubiquitous, and companies are racing to win market domination. A competitor to the HoloLens, the “Lightware” headset from secretive Magic Leap, has been in the news lately, after six years of development at a cost of $2 billion, for two reasons.

The first is that the company unveiled the “Creator Edition” of the headset in December. Now we know what it looks like: something right off the cover of a vintage sci-fi novel.

The second reason is rampant speculation that Apple might buy Magic Leap to accelerate its own AR goggle development, speculation driven by Apple analyst Gene Munster.

In other hologram headset headlines, Dell this week announced that it will start selling, on Feb. 15, the $1,495 Meta 2 developer kits, which include the Meta 2 AR headset, for business deployments. The company said the Meta 2 is supported by several business-class Dell Precision Workstation PCs.

The AR smartphone app experience is emerging now — and the AR headset world is getting closer every day.

So that’s the story on phones and goggles, but what about that “real AR hologram revolution” I mentioned earlier? I will get to that, in the second half of this column. But first, let’s address a basic question.




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What are holograms good for




Think of hologram displays as the next step in making digital content more human-compatible.

Humans see the world in 3D. Our computer and phone screens show us a 2D version of the world. It’s artificial.

If I look at a concept car design on my laptop, people on the other side of the room see only the back of my laptop lid. That’s artificial, too.

A hologram projected in the middle of the room could show a 3D concept car for all to see, as if it were a physical object actually there.

The biggest applications for holograms are for enterprises, such as what I described above — 3D presentations for conference rooms and meetings.

And while we’re deploying holograms in the conference room, we might as well beam live remote meeting participants into the meeting — holographic telepresence.

Holograms will also dramatically improve training, design and visualization in enterprises. The ability to look at, zoom in on and manipulate 3D versions of in-progress designs radically enhances the design process.

And, of course, in the marketing department, holograms will thrill customers with experiential marketing campaigns and customer experience interactions.

We’re already seeing applications for all these emerging for smartphone, tablet and headset AR. But the real benefits come when holograms are liberated from such devices.




Holograms without phones or headsets






While dozens or hundreds of major hologram research projects are currently being developed in corporate and university labs around the world, the first examples of this new category are already shipping — or are available to corporate developers.




 





  • DeepFrame




A company called Realfiction makes an AR product called DeepFrame. The product is basically a 64-inch glass window that you look through to see the real world plus 3D holograms and AR images and text. These objects can be projected to appear a few feet away and a few feet across or miles away and miles across — for example, across an entire city.





  •   Realfiction




DeepFrame holograms can appear to be miles wide, such as this life-size recreation of a rocket launch.

DeepFrame enables all kinds of science fiction-like applications, such as 3D telepresence (making it appear almost as if people are in a meeting, when they’re in fact on the other side of the world).

DeepFrame is currently sold to enterprises but could eventually be used for retail experiential marketing purposes. (DeepFrame costs approximately $50,000.)





  • HP Zvr




Another approach to AR hologram creation is already shipping from HP. That company now sells a special 23.6-inch display product called the HP Zvr. The $4,000 device was made in a partnership with a company called zSpace.





  •   HP




The HP Zvr replaces a standard monitor and adds the ability to cast 3D holograms over the screen.

The Zvr doesn’t require a headset, but it does require lightweight glasses.

The screen works via sensors on the display that track the location of the glasses and therefore your eyes, which enables you to look at multiple sides of 3D objects by leaning to one side or the other.

A special stylus has a virtual laser coming out of the end, and it enables you to grab and manipulate the floating holograms.





  • HoloPlayer




Meanwhile, a startup called Looking Glass Factory is working on a display product called HoloPlayer that’s currently available for pre-order as a $750 developer’s edition that has to be plugged into a PC or a $3,000 version, also for developers, that has a PC built-in.

The HoloPlayer shows 3D holograms on the other side of a sheet of glass, and you don’t need glasses to see them.





  •   Looking Glass Factory




The HoloPlayer device creates 3D hologram objects that can be manipulated using in-air gestures.

When you look straight on, you see the front of the image. Tilt your head to the side, and you see the side of the image.

These can be manipulated with natural hand gestures — reaching out, pretending to grab and turning will rotate the 3D objects. In-the-air swiping gestures also work as expected, taking you to the next image in a series.

The current version of the HoloPlayer sacrifices resolution for the 3D depth illusion. The light is projected onto 32 different depth planes, which results in a resolution of only 267 x 480.





  • Navion




Holographic imagery is also headed to a windshield near you. The most recent example was demonstrated at CES by a company called WayRay. Its product, called Navion, is a dashboard-mounted projector that creates the illusion of laying navigation data and turn-by-turn directions on the road itself. The company also rolled out an SDK for developers and announced that a Chinese car company would build the technology into its vehicles. WayRay is also working with Honda to develop future concepts for windshield 3D hologram products.

Beyond navigation, the Navion system identifies hazards on the fly, such as pedestrians crossing the road, and highlights them on the windshield. Navion can be controlled with in-the-air hand gestures or voice commands.




A different kind of smartphone hologram






Currently, you can get the illusion of a 3D hologram by using any number of smartphone apps created with Apple’s ARKit or Google’s ARCore.

These don’t create 3D holograms — they create a video of a hologram. They combine real-time video feeds with digital objects. The app shows you what the camera sees, then superimposes digital images on top of that real-time video feed. The hologram appears to be a few feet in front of you when you’re looking at the screen.

Researchers are working on the creation of 3D hologram displays for smartphones that project the hologram on or above the surface of the display. Future technology will be able to project 3D holograms into the air above or even around a smartphone display.

Korean display giants Samsung and LG have reportedly been working on this for years. A professor at Chungbuk National University named Kim Nam told The Korea Herald that 3D hologram smartphones are 10 to 20 years away.

The kind of smartphone hologram technology that enables floating-in-the-air 3D holograms is in our far future. But in-the-screen holograms are coming soon, according to one company.

The popular HD video camera maker RED is working on a $1,195 smartphone called the Hydrogen One that it says sports a holographic display. The screen is being developed with a startup called Leia (named after Princess Leia from Star Wars, who introduced fans to the holographic display idea in the opening scene of the original 1977 movie). Leia is a spinoff from HP Labs.

The difference between future hologram phones and the RED Hydrogen One phone is that, while the 3D effect on the RED happens when you move the phone around, nothing is projected in the air. It all stays on the screen.

Holograms will prove immeasurably useful and powerful for enterprise applications. And this power will be fully realized with technologies more advanced than today’s smartphone apps and tomorrow’s AR headsets.

The job today is to start exploring the solutions now coming online. Several of these offer low-cost development kits, which are ideal for kicking the virtual 3D hologram tires of this emerging new interface.

Holograms have been a part of our imagination since the dawn of science fiction. But fiction is now starting to cross over into reality.




world's thinnest hologram






A team of scientists from RMIT University and the Beijing Institute of Technology have designed the 'world's thinnest' hologram. It is said the hologram is capable of being integrated into everyday products such as smartphones.

The work was led by RMIT's Min Gu led the project and claims the holographic technology can be seen without 3D goggles and is 1,000 times thinner than human hair. The academics dubbed the technology a 'nano hologram'.

At present, the constraints that hold back holographic technology lie in the limits of optical thickness. Regular holograms modulate light to project the illusion of a three-dimensional shape. But this needs to be within the parameters of the optimal thickness limit – computer-generated holograms are too large to fit atop smartphones and therefore have limited practical application.

Now, Min and the team behind the work has developed a 25 nanometer hologram using topological insulator material. It has a lower refractive index on the surface layer, but an ultrahigh refractive index in bulk. This thin insular film can enhance the holographic image without sacrificing its compact design.

Min says that the nano hologram is "fabricated using a simple and fast direct laser writing system, which makes our design suitable for large-scale uses and mass manufacture."

Theoretically, the technology may be able to fit inside smartphones and other devices but there is still work to be done. The next step is to shrink this technology even further, so that it can become suitable for integration upon LCD and smartphone screens, effectively producing a holographic device in your pocket.




portable holograms






The possibilities for portable holograms are appealing for a wide range of industries, Min says. "Integrating holography into everyday electronics would make screen size irrelevant – a pop-up 3D hologram can display a wealth of data that doesn’t neatly fit on a phone or watch.

"From medical diagnostics to education, data storage, defence and cyber security, 3D holography has the potential to transform a range of industries and this research brings that revolution one critical step closer.



Lapis Lazuli Meaning


 




Lapis Lazuli




When it comes to spiritual enlightenment, it all starts with the self. The Lapis Lazuli crystal helps us go deep within our spirits to awaken our true destiny and divine purpose. That's a big job for a sedentary object, but you'd be amazed at how this dazzling stone shines a light on the soul and its innate ability to heal. The color of water, the life-giving element of the planet, the ultramarine blue crystal meaning represents the many shades of sapphire blue, the color of self-expression and awareness. Considered a sacred color during the Renaissance, Lapis Lazuli was ground into powder and mixed into paint that was used to for the Virgin Mary's robes and other historic cathedrals.




Lapis Lazuli Meaning & Healing Properties




Thanks to deposits of sulfur contained in its matrix, the Lapis Lazuli crystal stands out in the world of gemstones with its deep sapphire blue color. It also contains prosperity and abundance qualities with its unique variations of gold and white specks from Calcite and Pyrite deposits, the good luck stones. Associated with the third eye chakra, the ultramarin blue meaning can be traced back to ancient Egypt where royalty believed in its power to stimulate openness to the spirit world and infinite possibilities of the imagination. Fashion icon and Egyptian beauty Cleopatra used the crushed powder of Lapis Lazuli in her cosmetics to create the signature eye makeup design that symbolizes an Egyptian pharaoh.




Ultramarin blue Meaning




Also used to decorate tombs of King Tot and other famous pharaohs, the ultramarine blue crystal stone meaning helps bridge the gap between the physical world and the spiritual realm that exists beyond the horizon in a merging of the past and present. Take this stone out for a spin on your spiritual journey and get ready to go deep within, the sacred place in your soul where you hide your deepest desires. Take it even further by meditating with the crystal and expanding your mind to a world where anything is possible, including conversing with ancestors from past lives.








If you find yourself drawn to the Lapis Lazuli stone, it could be a sign that you’re ready to open the doors to the magic and wonder of the universe. Meditate with ultramarine blue crystal, a water element stone, and discover the honesty of your spirit, both in the spoken and written word. To set the mood for deep introspection and shamanistic journeying, prepare your space with a cleansing and purification ritual. Borrowing from the Native American tradition used for thousands of years, smudge your environment and crystals with sage to cleanse the energy fields of toxic energy. Like any meditation practice, begin your therapeutic session by focusing on your breath and quieting the mind. This is also a good time to take stock of your current state. If the hamster wheel is in overdrive, focus your mind on the stone and ask it to bring serenity during times of chaos.








Lapis Lazuli helps bring awareness of the soul and your spiritual purpose in life. For the Egyptians it was the great pyramids. For you, it's whatever your heart desires. And although we may walk different paths than our ancestors, our destinations are the same--to walk into the light of divine purpose. In the words of philosopher Carl Jung, "Who looks outside dreams. Who looks inside awakens." If you are drawn to the cool and soothing colors of this vibrant stone, it could be a sign that you need help getting out of a spiritual funk. Climb out of the abyss with Lapis Lazuli crystal properties and bring tranquility and spiritual renewal into your life.








Ultramarin blue Properties




If your emotional forecast is partly cloudy and blocking your inner rays ofsunshine , call on the Lapis Lazuli crystal properties and channel the soothing vibrations of its deep blue color, which inspires images of the ocean, the sky, and the heavens. And when it comes to finding your happy place, these life-giving elements make top destinations for calming the mind and opening the doors to a higher consciousness. The ultramarine blue crystal allows you to keep your feet on the ground and your head in the clouds.




 




Treasured by the ancient Egyptians for its powerful ability to bring about insight and spiritual transformation, the Lapis Lazuli crystal healing properties also have practical applications. A natural alternative to aspirin, this stone is an excellent remedy for migraines and headaches, especially since it stimulates the third eye chakra. Place on your forehead along with other healing water stones like Turquoises and Sodalite, and inhale deeply while feeling its brilliant rays of light infusing your body with healing energy. On the exhale, imagine all the bad energy being released, like a river of tranquility flowing out towards the sea.




 




To all the dreamers of the universe, discover your authentic self in the still, deep energy of ultramarine blue








Want to learn which crystal is right for you? Head over to our Crystal Test and let your intuition guide you to your crystals!




Magnificent Lapis Lazuli.  I always wonder how someone can create such heavenly pieces of art.  Here




I  will talk about the marvelous magical objects wonderful hands have made through time.. I will tell you about its use in the Persian and Roman Empire; the Renaissance and the Modern World. The magnificent works of the famous Pietra Dura.  The artistic wonders of Lapis Lazuli (lapis for short).   Enjoy!




Ancient Civilizations about ultramarine blue




ultramarine blue is a semi precious stone which appears in the most ancient civilizations known to man. Neolithic men were the first who created the first jewelry. They would bore a small hole through the Lapis Lazuli and string the pebbles of blue with a thread.




4,000 years ago, artists created objects like cylinder seals, necklaces. They also made amulets, animal statuettes and inlay on important statues, mostly in the eyes it absorbs all attention to the figure.




It had such an importance in life as well in the after life. Prove of that is that Lapis Lazuli was also found in Neolithic tombs in Mauritania and in the Caucasus. The wealthiest tombs of the first dynasties had lapis. The Egyptians listed it in their funeral items and also used it at the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamen.




The first land vehicle is a queens sledge with lapis from 2100B.C., an interesting fact that made my day.  The Sumerian of ancient times created necklaces, belts, headdress, as well as finery, combs and tiaras.




The Palace walls in the Cretan Palace of Knossos from 2000B.C showed how the pulverized stone was mixed to form a blue pigment for painting.




Priests bordered Ecclesiastic Manuscripts with crushed pigment. Artisan painters also used Lapis for religious shrines and decorative elements on the altars of churches.








The Persians controlled the flow of lapis from antiquity. Their art presented itself in the painting of miniatures like Layla and Majnun, Shirin and Khosrav painting and specially the manuscripts of the poet Nizani (1140-1202 A.D).  Persian art, especially served two purposes; it inspired beauty and often provided a practical use in vases, containers and also in personal art. These artisans spent their lives grinding pigments by pulverizing minerals. There were various shades of ultramarin blue as pale blue, azure and greenish blue.




Roman Empire




Roman Emperor Augustus wife, Livia, in 1A.D was immortalized in a Lapis figurine carved of her face and affixed to a gold cross. It was a gift to Archbishop Herriman of Cologne.  Emperor Augustus was one of the founders of the silk route.  The silk route connected trade across Asia and he ruled Rome from 100-44 B.C.  He was also the grandnephew to Caesar.








Roman Legionnaires wore seal ring set with gemstones.   On his deathbed, Napoleon Bonaparte gave his son a signet ring of lapis.  It was a token of love.  The Roman practice of wearing seal rings continued and became a tradition.  This style began in antiquity and merged into western lifestyle.  To acquire an elegant and stylish Lapis Lazuli ring you only have to visit our favorite Nammu store.




Pliny the Elder, a scholar of repute, called lapis a star rock for its gold pyrite flecks.




Throughout the Latin speaking Roman World the word “sapphirus” was used when they were really referring to ultramarine blue china.




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Roman Healers




The Romans also employed lapis in the treatment of circulatory diseases, epilepsy and skin troubles.  They also used it as an aphrodisiac and who knows maybe they still do.  They used lapis earrings, bracelets and hypnotizing pendants.




Roman artists also immortalized in 1 A.D., the wife of Roman Emperor Augustus, Livia, in a Lapis Lazuli figurine. Livia’s face was carved and affixed to a gold cross.




In the Salle du Tresors in Paris at the Louvre are fine examples of lapis like the manuscripts of Chantilly where the French also used it as pigment applied to the pages.








Application of uitramarine blue in Renaissance




Renaissance!  Literally the rebirth.  I’ve talked before of Lapis Lazuli and its artistic uses but I deemed necessary to dedicate an exclusive post to its use by the master artisans of the Renaissance and what it meant to the Roman culture.  Who hasn’t seen pictures of Michelangelo’s work in the Sistine Chapel or Leonardo da Vinci’s? Lapis Lazuli Azzurro is a formidably example of heavenly craftsmanship.




I particularly had the incredible opportunity to admire in first hand the Sistine Chapel.  I remember I used to get lost in the blueness of the heavens without realizing at the time that I was also admiring another piece of work in its self, the beautiful and unique uitramarine blue india.




Artisans and painters from the ancient Rome, also used Lapis for religious shrines and decorative on the altars of churches.




In the Salle du Tresors in Paris at the Louvre are fine examples of lapis like themanuscripts of Chantilly where the French used it as pigments applied to the pages.  Due to the frailness of the manuscripts one must wear a mask and turn the pages with wooden sticks to prevent decomposition.




In the Renaissance it was more expensive than gold.  Michelangelo’s pigments included Lapis Lazuli for the Sistine Chapel (1475-1564).  The Sistine Chapel is by far is one of the most exquisite uses of lapis pigment for the blues of heaven where the best stones were required.








Leonardo da Vinci, Fran Angelico and other master artists also wanted the mineral for pigments.  They usually reserved lapis for the cloaks of Christ, Angels and especially the Virgin Mary.




During the Renaissance, the Medici of Florence, the prominent Italian banking family, also provided decorative stones to artists like Benevuto Celli and other master artists.




Genuine Ultramarine




The following is an excerpt from an indepth article on Genuine and Synthetic Ultramarine, written by Paul Robinson, Artist and Painting & Technical Advisor at Winsor & Newton.




Extracting Genuine Ultramarine Pigment




For the best final pigment; the best quality rock must be used. All except the highest quality of mineral produce only a pale greyish blue powder.




Once the rock is selected, the method described by Cennini is the only effective way to extract the pigment:




The rock is firstly broken down into pieces no larger than a 5 pence piece (measurement) . The crushed rock is then finely ground with water, on a mill or in a pot.




This has to be ground finely enough to pass through a 400’s mesh sieve. This is then allowed to dry, before it is passed through a 200’s mesh sieve giving powder that is ready for extraction.




For extraction, Venice Turps, Mastic Gum and Beeswax Pellets are weighed out into a stainless steel pan and mixed whilst the pan is on a hot plate, until mixture is fully combined and of a smooth consistency.




 




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The mixture is then transferred into another pan through a cup sieve to remove any remaining larger lumps. This pan is kept on a set of scales so the final resin weight can be known.




The lapis powder is then added to medium mix (equal parts) and stirred in until a putty like lump forms. At this stage the resultant mass is scrapped out of the pan using a wooden spoon and a pallet knife, into an enamel bowl of water at room temperature.




With hands and fingers coated in a little refined linseed oil the lump is massaged, constantly immersing it into the water. The linseed oil being re-applied to hands when necessary.




 




The lazurite contained in the rock is hydrophilic, meaning its molecules are typically charge-polarized and capable of hydrogen bonding, enabling it to dissolve more readily in water than in oil or other hydrophobic solvents.








The whole principle of the refining process is based on these water seeking properties of lazurite. The mixture of rough lapis lazuli and its ever present iron pyrites and granite is dispersed in the thick resinous putty. Massaging this putty under water combined with the hydrophilic property of the lazurite causes the blue particles to pass into the water; whereas the particles of colourless granite together with the iron pyrites adhere to the resin within the putty.




After approximately 2 hours of massaging, a fine blue powder should start to bleed out of the lump. The process is continued, swapping for a fresh bowl of water approximately every 30 minutes.The contents of each bowl are poured through a 400’s mesh before allowing to settle.




This process is repeated until no more blue bleeds from the lump.




The blue powder in the bowls is allowed to settle overnight, when any clear water is tipped off and the powder allowed to dry slowly.




The finished powder is added to boiling water to remove any medium residue, and the powder allowed to dry again.




Genuine Ultramarine has always been an expensive colour to produce because of the very high quality of stone required, because of the very high losses incurred in refining, and because of the long and tedious method of extraction. Ultramarine was the supreme blue in medieval times and also, possibly because of its intrinsic value, the use of this pigment in conjunction with gold was popular as an expression of wealth and elegance with patrons of the Renaissance.








Ultramarine blue originally signified pigment made of lapis lazuli - a super-precious paint made from a semi-precious stone from Afghanistan. Genuine ultramarine was so expensive that a prize was offered to whoever could develop a synthetic alternative that was a tenth of the cost. Not one, but two, individuals met that challenge in 1828 by creating a silicate of sodium and aluminum with sulfur. Shades from green to violet could be made by tweaking the production process. Manufactured from 1830 onward—and called french ultramarine, artificial ultramarine blue, new blue, or permanent blue—the pigment PB29 became one of the most popular colors on artists’ palettes.




Chemically, lapis lazuli paint and ultramarine blue paint are identical, but they do look distinct. Ultramarine blue has small, uniformly sized particles of a single color, but (being a ground-up natural stone) lapis pigment is a mix of colors and irregularly shaped particles, which have a different texture and reflect light differently. Today, we often mean the synthetic version when we say ultramarine blue, tacking on the specifier “genuine” if we intend the much rarer mineral version. All below reference is to PB29 paint.




Limn Colors ultramarine blue is a saturated, semitransparent, dark, violet-leaning blue. It makes clean violet mixes with cool reds and magentas and is nicely neutralized with siennas or raw umber. Ultramarine's unique property of flocculation—the tendency of its particles to clump up together—give it a lively granulating texture in washes. Interesting effects can be achieved when mixing ultramarine with a micronized pigment, as some of the heavier blue particles will sink a bit while the lightest particles will float above. You can try this by blending ultramarine blue and quinacridone magenta, then applying in a very wet wash. By the time the violet dries, there will likely be some separation of the two paints.








 




GOT THE BLUES




Lapis paint was too pricy even for Michelangelo; synthetic ultramarine blue pigment brought affordable, bright blue to every palette.




ULTRAMARINE BLUE USAGE




Ultramarine blue is a safe, lightfast pigment used for ultra-whitening fabrics and papers, achieving that Liz-Taylor-in-Cleopatra eye look, dramatic interior decorating, and of course fine art.




•One of the hues in Pablo Picasso’s blue period was ultramarine blue.




•Ultramarine blue is the base for International Klein Blue, the vivid blue invented in 1960 and used extensively in 2D, 3D, and performance art by Frenchman Yves Klein. His formula included a resin that added a lapis-like luster to the synthetic pigment.




Vincent Van Gogh painted the deeper blues in Starry Night with ultramarine blue.




•Pierre-Auguste Renoir’s The Umbrellas was painted in two stages, the earlier portion with cobalt blue and the later with ultramarine.




•It’s a who’s who of blue: John Singer Sargent, Paul Cézanne, Georges Seurat, Piet Mondrian, J. M. W. Turner, Claude Monet...




 




 




 




WARM BLUE VS COOL BLUE




This is not a trick question: do you think ultramarine blue is a cool blue or a warm blue? A blue can lean more green and thus yellow, like phthalo blue gs, or more violet and thus red, like ultramarine. But not everyone agrees which direction is warm and which is cool. Itten’s color theory defines blue-green as the coolest color on the wheel, so that would make blue-violet warmer. Plus, the rule of "cool colors recede" would indicate ultramarine is a warm blue as it seems to come forward in a painting. Others say violet, the coolest color on the ROYGBV spectrum line, should mean purply blues are cooler; and if yellow is the hottest color, then greenish blues are warmer. Books, artists, and color theorists don’t see eye-to-eye on this one. Brain melting.




 




LAPIS LAZULI PIGMENTS




Lapis Lazuli pigment (Lazurite, Natural Ultramarine, Azzurro Oltramarino, Fra Angelico blue pigment, Lapis Lazuli genuine, Ultramarine ash)




Natural pigment suitable for icon painting (egg tempera), oil painting and watercolor painting without additional grinding.




Cennino Cennini "Il Libro dell' Arte" - "Ultramarine blue is a color illustrious, beautiful, and most perfect, beyond all other colors; one could not say anything about it, or do anything with it, that its quality would not still surpass."




Lapis Lazuli is a blue semiprecious stone mined in the Badakhshan province of Afghanistan for centuries. It can be found in other locations in Asia and America but only a couple of Afgan mines produce the highest grade (a very deep purplish blue) of this unique stone. It is a complex mineral composed of lazurite, calcite, sodalite and pyrite. It has many varieties of color in ranges from a light blue denim to a deep dark purplish blue tone depending on the value of lazurite in the composition. The highest values have dark blue rocks with a solid blue area (blue meat) with tiny veins of pyrite. This type is called gem grade or AAA grade. Other grades are not that high in value and are easy to obtain. These are mainly used for carvings. Some dealers alter natural rocks by dyeing to improve the color. Because there is no standard on how to grade these rocks they can all call their grade gem grade or AAA. The high grade of the mineral is difficult to obtain and often requires traveling and personal selection.








Master Pigments Lapis Lazuli pigments are prepared from gem grade rocks. It took years of looking and learning about grades of rocks and people around them. The preparation of the pigment starts with cutting raw rocks to a smaller size and eliminating as much calcite and pyrite as possible. Then the size of rocks is reduced by a jaw crusher into coarse sand. Lapis Lazuli rocks are very hard, with it being the hardest material I have ever experienced. The distinct smell of burned matches accommodates the crushing process. Marble or glass collapse in the crusher like butter compared to crushing Lapis Lazuli rocks. After crushing, the sand is washed in the water. The cleaned Lapis Lazuli sand is further wet milled in a metal free environment to prevent contamination. The milling time is extended due to the hardness of the sand. First the sand is milled with big media then is milled again with smaller media to reduce particles to a size under 50 microns. Because of this long milling time, non-contaminating milling is very important. I can't imagine how hard this process must be and how crushed powder looked in the 14th century. Makes me wonder about the studies of paint recipes from the masters and their additives to paint and how many “additives” were intentional and how much contamination was actually from pigment and paint preparation. Cennini wrote to crush the rocks in bronze mortar and then to do the powder on glass with water. By the time they were done with size reduction, there must have been quite a lot of contaminant in the prepared powder. The size reduction is the key because all blue crystals have to be separated from colorless contaminants and produce smooth pigments instead of a sandy, gritty, powder. But again not too small, because the final color of extracted pigment needs to have a purpulish toned 'glow' significant to this special pigment. This is also the step where all nice blue particles temporarily disappear in the sediments and the color of the mixture is more gray than blue. There is no resemblance to the rich blue color of Lapis rocks at all. The solution is left to settle. Multiple washes of the powder follow, until the wash water becomes neutral in pH. Then the solution is left to settle and air dried. This is the Lapis Lazuli powder – fine 303030. Then the pigment extraction follows.








Pigment extraction




Now the real alchemy takes place. The process is based on the recipe from the book The “Craftsman's Handbook” by Cennino d'Andrea Cennini which is translated by Daniel V. Thompson, Jr. The original Italian text was a great help. Many thanks to the great guidance of 'maestro'. Due to extensive research and multiple try-n-fail experiences, Master Pigments can extract this unique pigment. After years of looking for the right ingredients and steps in the preparation routine, the procedure was developed. Different grades of the pigment are extracted. A plastic dough formed of resin and powder is intact during the whole extraction process. There is no disintegration of dough or wrapping in the cloth. Just oiled hands, dough and  water. The preparation begins by melting raw beeswax, gum mastic and pine rosin. The previously prepared pigment is mixed in.  Then the mixture is kneaded in hands until an evenly textured of dark grayish-blue dough forms. While still hot and elastic, the mass is divided into three parts and these are formed into sticks.








That way they are easier to knead. Each stick is kneaded by hands in hot water in a specific routine, repeated number of times.  The dough keep impurities locked in while pigment particles fall out and descend down to the bottom of the container. This is literally a 'hand made' pigment. The first routine produces the best grade. Vivid, deep blue, but not dark, hypnotizing. Every-time an uplifting and purifying feeling arises almost like there is more to see but our vision is limited to go so far in blue range. This is the Fra Angelico blue pigment (303001). The second and third routine sticks release a very high grade of blue – this is my Lapis Lazuli – Pure grade 1st pigment (303005). Fra Angelico blue and Lapis Lazuli pure 1st grade are grades of pigment which require huge patience with the preparation of the dough and extraction itself. From the fourth to the seventh part of the routine the dough releases nice blue particles of pigment which are the Lapis Lazuli - Ultramarine ash (303010). This is a nice blue, not grayish but not as vivid as higher grades, valued by the painter for its transparent properties. It is free of impurities and much more vibrant than the raw powder.




 




 




 






3D Hologram with covert image


Hologram Labels | Hologram Foils | Security Holograms




1.   Hologram Master Origination Types and Different Hologram Sticker Security Features:




Hologram master origination is a piece of nickel mold which plays a security key role in the hologram manufacturing. Combination of different security features like 2D/3D, Dot-marix, 3D, 2D, E-beam, True Color, CLR & Moire Hidden text, Micron text, Nano text, Guilloche Lines, Multi Chanells, will achieve a good hologram against counterfiet.




types of hologram




 




DOT-MATRIX Hologram






Dot-Matrix holographic label allows implementing unlimited computer controlled and laser beam engraved dots in hologram. Dot-matrix hologram is the result of designs comprising many tiny hologrram dots which millions of grating dots' viewing angles and position are accurately recorded. They create a beautiful impact of variable images, especial many types of kinetic movements. E-beam hologram system has much smaller dots than Dot-matrix sytem. Stock Dot-matrix patterns




dot matriix hologram




2D/3D Hologram






2D/3D hologram sticker is made up of multiple two dimensional layers with holographic images visually placed one behind another. Hologram visual depth produces an effect of three-dimensional holographicc structure by laser optical recording. 2D/3D hologram labels colorful images and clear 3D depth between different layers. Hologram stickers made by 2D & 2D/3D optical recording system have better sharpness and color than Dot-matrix or E-beam sytem.




true color hologram




True Color Hologram






True color holographic label is made up of photographic quality portrait art-work with natual color. If counterfeiter can not get original portrait, they won't be able to duplicate similar hologram close to original one.




2D Hologram






2D hologram sticker is made up of two dimensional images. The holographic images are assigned different colors and position in one layer. All color seperation images and text are on surface, without visual depth. 2D hologram has the highest brightness and sharpnes.




3D model hologram sticker




3d hologram






3D Stereogram hologram labels are made by more than 30 flips hologram images with optical 3D hologram system. It's not possible to copy similar effect 3D hologram successfully from exsist sample. 3D Model hologam is recorded from a small sculpture model by different angles laser beams. Recombination of 3D Stereogram hologram with 2D/3D, dot-matrix, 2D, CLR hidden text, Micro Text and kinematic guilloche elements has high security.




Digital and E-beam 3D Hologram with covert image






Digital 3D hologram stickers are made by computer synthesized electronic beam dots or high resolution dot-matrix system grating dots which are controlled by software. The E-beam hologram can make nano text, multi-switch, animated CLR and multilevel CLR, as well as 3D, 2D/3D, 2D, hidden text,flip-flops and kinematic elements.






Kinematic Movement






Kinetic animation effect like guilloche lines, zooming, switching, rotation, pillar light and raster effect are available to be made together with 2D/3D and 2D type holograms. 2D/3D type hologram kinematic movement comes a sequential viewing angle holographic lines/images with different color separation. Dot-matrix type holographic kinematic movement effect has more smooth flips . With special digital and 2D/3D hologram technologies, customized design logo&graph can be incorporated onto perfect kinematic movement hologram patterns.

Covert Laser Readable Hidden Text(CLR images) and Moire Hidden Text in hologram sticker 

Hidden text or image contains unique encrypted data, invisible to naked eye and detectable only by means of a pocket reader. Laser readable hidden (covert laser readable) text/image just can be seen with special laser pointer (laser reader). Morie hidden is revealed by covering a piece of decode film on holographic sticker's encode area. Boht are covert secutity features. High security dynamic CLR and multilevel CLR with morie covert features are available to be to incorporated together. Two kind of hidden Text(image) in hologram 




Flip-Flop Hologram




flip-flop hologram

Multichannel switch and flip-flop effect. 2D/3D, Dot-Matrix, E-beam hologram allows display two or more images from different viewing angles. When the viewing angle changes horizontally (left to right) or vertically (upside and down), different images evolve through the hologram label. This switch effect with multichannels are overt features.

Micro Text or Image in hologram labels, Nano text, concealed images and other Overt security. 

Micro text or micro image in holographic label is difficult to be seen clearly by naked eye . It's visual inspection clearly by magnifier and microscope. Nano text has smaller font than micron text. Micron text, enforced error micron text, nano text has font size as 10 micron, 25 micron, 100 micron.

Security Flash Light and Len effect, speckle effect, random interference fringes, matt color gives good security and appearance.




Combination of Hologram






Combination of hologram creates an impact that has extra-ordinary viewing effects and also security features. Usually, it's good to combine 2D, 2D/3D and dot-matrix together to result 2D sharpness, dot-matrix kinematic movements and 2D/3D good viewing depth. CLR hidden text, moire hidden text, micro text , true color, digital 3Dimprove hologram sticker security as well as VOID, Honeycomb, ORIGINAL tamper evident parttern released material and laser etching/de-metalization sequential numbers

 




2. Security Tamper Proof Types




Pattern released tamper evident material, serial numbers, de-metalization, security slit and special shape die-cutting improve hologram sticker security too. Destructive/Tamper Evident, VOID Tamper Proof, ORIGINAL Tamper Proof, Honeycomb Tamper Proof, Transparent Tamper Evident, VOID Transparent Tamper Evident.




Pressure Tamper Evident Hologram Sticker (Middle Level Security Material)

Tamper-proof also called pressure sensitive or tamper evident. Tamper-proof holographic sticker will be damaged when it's removed. Tamper-proof holographic image cannot be removed without getting destroyed and cannot be reused anymore.

VOID Pattern Release Tamper Evident,  Honeycomb Pattern Release Tamper Evident,  ORIGINAL Pattern Tamper Evident (High Level Security Material)

Pattern release tamper evident holographic labels leave VOID, ORIGINAL, Honeycomb shape words residue when removed. Customized design word or image residue also can be made which is separated from aluminum layer when hologram sticker is damaged. Overprinting release holographic sticker leaves over printing word or image in red, black and other colors.  'VOID', 'ORIGINAL' Pattern Released Hologram 

Tamper Evident Transparent Hologram & VOID Transparent Tamper Proof (High Level Security in Transparent)

Transparent holographic sticker is see through type security holographic label. We have tamper-proof, VOID tamper evident and non tamper proof transparent holographic sticker which prevent photocopying and forgeries of document with clear see through view.

Non Pressure Tamper Evident Hologram Sticker

Non pressure tamper evident holographic sticker's image won't be damaged when it's torn off from surface on which it's pasted such as paper, glass and plastic card, etc. The non tamper proof hologram sticker is widely use on textile tag as washable label.

Transparent holographic ID Card Overlays & Transparent Hologram Decal for Mobile Screen

 

 security hologram

3. Security Hologram Sticker with Laser Etching Numbering/Logo/Text, Black color over printing logo/text/number/barcode/QR code

Serial Number on Hologram Sticker has laser etched serial number and black ink number. Hologram Special Shape Cutting also helps to enhance hologram security and appearance. Serial running number or random number is additional security feature for holographic sticker. They are widely used to improve management of goods trace and price label anti counterfeit. Custom barcode/logo/serial number, QR code can be printed on spoon roll hologram sticker by desktop barcode thermal printer. We also make Dual/Triple Serial number, Holographic Sticker with Sequential Numbers

Laser Etching Number/Logo, Black Ink Number/Logo, Overprinting

De-metallized Hologram Sticker De-metallization Logo, Laser Etching Logo/image/numbering

UV Ink and Thermochromic Ink for security.




holografiic

4.  Different Material Color for Holographic Sticker & Holographic Film & Hot Stamping foil

Silver, Golden, Blue, Red, Green color and Transparent PET metallized film

Metallized PET film has different colors. More than 90% holographic sticker is made of silver color material because silver material has best brightness Other color material : Golden , Red , Blue , Green , Pink , Transparent

Transparent Hologram Sticker & Transparent Holographic Decal

Transparent hologram sticker, Transparent hologram overlay, Tamper Evident Transparent & VOID Transparent Tamper Proof

(5) Different Material Thickness for Holographic Labels

25micron, 36micron, 50micron, 100micron thickness PET metallized film

Holographic sticker metalized aluminum PET film optional thickness is 25 micron, 36micron, 50micron, 100 micron. 25 micron pressure sensitive PET material is default option for secure holographic sticker.






5.  Roll & Sheet, Cutting shape & size, Over printing

Spoon Hologram Label, Holographic Sticker in Roll, Sticker in roll format and application machine, Sticker in roll

Holographic sticker in sheet format is easy for manual application. If cusotmer apply the holographic label by automatic machine, spoon roll hologram label is available. Spoon roll holographic label has same gap precisely, like 3mm, 4mm, 5mm,6mm. It's also suitable for thermal barcode printer to print logo/number/text/QR code on. Our hologram price label is good for price gun labeller printing and application too. Barcode/logo/serial number & Black ink number & QR code printed on roll sticker

Special Shape Cutting Hologram We can cut any shape as customer requirement from size 6mm*6mm to 156mm*160mm.






6.  How to order and make artwork?

How to Order Hologram? How to make Artwork?

We'll make several different effect artworks free for customer approval. After order confirmation and artwork approval, we'll produce and show hologram master origination which has same effect as final hologram.




If you want to see a hologram, you don't have to look much farther than your wallet. Th¬ere are holograms on most driver's licenses, ID cards and credit cards. If you're not old enough to drive or use credit, you can still find holograms around your home. They're part of CD, DVD and software packaging, as well as just about everything sold as "official merchandise."

Unfortunately, these holograms -- which exist to make forgery more difficult -- aren't very impressive. You can see changes in colors and shapes when you move them back and forth, but they usually just look like sparkly pictures or smears of color. Even the mass-produced holograms that feature movie and comic book heroes can look more like green photographs than amazing 3-D images.

On the other hand, large-scale holograms, illuminated with lasers or displayed in a darkened room with carefully directed lighting, are incredible. They're two-dimensional surfaces that show absolutely precise, three-dimensional images of real objects. You don't even have to wear special glasses or look through a View-Master to see the images in 3-D.

If you look at these holograms from different angles, you see objects from different perspectives, just like you would if you were looking at a real object. Some holograms even appear to move as you walk past them and look at them from different angles. Others change colors or include views of completely different objects, depending on how you look at them.

Holograms have other surprising traits as well. If you cut one in half, each half contains whole views of the entire holographic image. The same is true if you cut out a small piece -¬- even a tiny fragment will still contain the whole picture. On top of that, if you make a hologram of a magnifying glass, the holographic version will magnify the other objects in the hologram, just like a real one.

Holography is a photographic technique that records the light scattered from an object, and then presents it in a way that appears three-dimensional. Holograms pop up in movies such as "Star Wars" and "Iron Man," but the technology has not quite caught up to movie magic — yet.

Various types of holograms have been made over the years, including transmission holograms, which allow light to be shined through them and the image to be viewed from the side; and rainbow holograms, which are used for security purposes — on credit cards and driver's licenses, for example.




holografy

 




How holography works






To create a hologram, you need an object (or person) that you want to record; a laser beam to be shined upon the object and the recording medium; a recording medium with the proper materials needed to help clarify the image; and a clear environment to enable the light beams to intersect.

What is a Nerve Agent?

Simply put, nerve agents stop the central nervous system from communicating with the muscles, organs and glands it needs to keep your body's internal machinery running smoothly.

 

A laser beam is split into two identical beams and redirected by the use of mirrors. One of the split beams, the illumination beam or object beam, is directed at the object. Some of the light is reflected off the object onto the recording medium.

The second beam, known as the reference beam, is directed onto the recording medium. This way, it doesn't conflict with any imagery that comes from the object beam, and coordinates with it to create a more precise image in the hologram location.

The two beams intersect and interfere with each other. The interference pattern is what is imprinted on the recording medium to recreate a virtual image for our eyes to see.

The recording medium, where the lights converge, can be made up of various materials. One of the most common used with hologram creation is photographic film, with an added amount of light-reactive grains. This enables the resolution to be higher for the two beams, making the image look much more realistic than using the silver halide material from the 1960s.




History of holography






The development of hologram technology started in 1962, when Yuri Denisyuk, in the Soviet Union, and Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks at the University of Michigan developed laser technology that recorded 3D objects. Silver halide photographic emulsions were used for the recording medium, though the clarity of said objects wasn't perfect at the time. But new methods involving the conversion of transmission with the refractive index allowed holograms to be improved over time.




Future of holography




 future of holografy






For now, holograms are static. Recent presentations, such as CNN's special effect of a reporter appearing live from another location, and the late Tupac Shakur "appearing live" at a music festival, are not "true" holograms.

However, new holographic technology is being developed that projects 3D images from another location in real time. The images are also static, but they are refreshed every two seconds, creating a strobe-like effect of movement. The researchers hope to improve the technology over the next few years to bring higher resolution and faster image streaming.

And in March 2013, it was announced that a group of researchers from Hewlett Packard Laboratories has developed glasses-free, multi-perspective, 3D display technology for mobile devices.